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The Puritan colony in Massachusetts Bay was a much more thoroughgoing theocracy than modern-day Iran.
The Puritan leaders not only banned all religious worship except their narrow version of Calvinism. They screened newcomers for religious orthodoxy. Sunday religious worship was compulsory. They might jail or fine you for such offenses as wasting time.
It’s true, as David Hackett Fischer pointed out in Albion’s Seed, that established churches and religious persecution were the norm in 17th century Europe and its colonies.
Virginia and the other southern colonies, like New England, had tax-supported established churches. The settlers on the Appalachian frontier settlers did not hold with established churches, but they were quick to drive out any clergy whose preaching didn’t meet with their approval. Only the Quakers of the Delaware Valley embraced the radical idea of tolerating religious teachings they thought to be in error.
But the Puritan religion was exceptionally narrow, austere and joyless. It was about human sinfulness, the threat of hell, policing each others’ behavior and listening to hours-long sermons on hard benches in unheated churches. The Anglican religion of tidewater Virginia, in contrast, involved a rich liturgy, 20-minute sermons and many feast days.
The flowering of New England culture was the result of a revolt against this Calvinist orthodoxy at the dawn of the 19th century.
Transcendentalists rejected original sin, and taught that we all have a divine spark within us. In that respect, their theology was more like the Quaker doctrine of the Inner Light than it was like the old-time Calvinism.
Humanitarian reformers sought to bring about the Kingdom of God by championing the cause of the blind, the deaf, the mentally ill, the American Indian and the black slave. There, too, New England Congregationalists and Unitarians followed in the footsteps of Quakers.
The things the Yankee reformers retained from Puritanism were moral and intellectual seriousness, belief in education and self-government, and commitment to collective action.
One of the first fruits of the flowering of New England was the emergence of the Republican Party, which was formed to oppose the spread of slavery. Almost all the famous New England writers and reformers were Republicans.